July’s Tree of the Month: Byrsonima Crassifolia

Nance in bloom ©Edwina von Gal
Nance in bloom ©Edwina von Gal

Nance season is here! Nance trees are common to see on the pacific side of Panama, where the tree flowers and fruits from March to October. Native to the Americas, this tree can be found from Mexico to Brazil. Here in Azuero, the fruits are often most abundant in August. The flowers are a beautiful golden yellow, and turn orange as they age. Because of similar flowers and fruits, Nance is sometimes confused with Byrsonima spicata, or nancito, which is a larger tree with smaller leaves. The yellow fruits are small 1-2 cm globes and are full of antioxidents, including Vitamins A and C. If you’ve traveled in Panama, you may have tasted these fruits in sweets such as pesada de nance, a thick fruit dessert, or chicha de nance, a blended fruit juice. Nance is one of those fruits people have strong feelings about- either you love it or you hate it!

You can collect the little yellow fruits both from the tree and the ground, and the pulp from the fruits can be extracted by hand. When you look for it in the market, the fruits will be packed in water to keep them fresh. The tree also has medicinal properties, as some use the bark boiled in tea to cure diarrhea and for inflammation of the bladder. The wood is used for flooring and carpentry, as well as firewood.

Nance in bottles  © Anthony L. Mapp  Biomuseo.org
Nance in bottles
© Anthony L. Mapp
Biomuseo.org

The tree itself grows between 5 a 15 meters high, in low elevations in dry tropical forests. The bark is dark grey and fissured. This species is deciduous, with leaves that turn red before they fall off in the dry season. The Nance tree is somewhat unique in that it can thrive in poor soil. The seedlings grow quickly, reaching 40-50 cm in just three months. However, the seeds are difficult germinate, with only 7% germination rate without treatment. One method to better germination is dry the seeds for 15-20 days and then bathe them in first hot, then cold water. An alternative might be to collect naturally germinated plants near a tree’s base and transplant them to grow in a greenhouse.

To find out more, check out the links below, and before the season is over, be on the lookout for these beautiful trees and their tasty fruits in restaurants and markets in Panama.

Nance Flower © Edwina von Gal
Nance Flower © Edwina von Gal

Works Consulted:

Carrasquilla R., Luis G., Árboles y Arbustos de Panamå, University of Panama, 2006.

Roman, Francisco et. al, Guia para Propagacion de 120 especies de arboles nativos de Panama y el Neotropico, Environmental Leadership and Training Initiative, 2012.

Ventocilla, Jorge, Luna de Nance, August 13, 2013, Biomuseo.org http://www.biomuseopanama.org/es/blog/luna-de-nance

March’s Tree of the Month: The Balsa (Ochroma Pyramidale)

March’s Tree of the Month is the balsa (Ochroma pyramidale), a pioneer species best known for its fast growth and lightweight wood.

Native to the Americas, the balsa is found throughout the region, ranging from Southern Brazil to Mexico. Today, the balsa is also found in several other tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.  The balsa is a member of the Malvaceae family, which also includes the panamå (Sterculia apetala), the cuipo (Cavinillesia platanifolia), and the ceiba (Ceiba pentandra).

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A pioneering balsa c. Guillermo Duran

The balsa is known for growing very quickly—the trees can reach heights of 30 meters in as little as 10-15 years. Because the tree grows so quickly, balsa wood is extremely lightweight, and is less dense even than cork. But despite its apparent lightness, balsa wood is relatively strong, and is considered a commercial hardwood.

Being highly buoyant (the density of balsa wood is one-fifth of the density of water), balsa wood is commonly used in the construction of boat decks and hulls. It is also frequently used in laminates, combined with other reinforced materials to build things like wind turbines, car floorboards, and ping-pong paddles. Balsa wood is popular for model building, and is often used to make popsicle sticks and other basic disposable goods. Today, 95% of commercial balsa wood is grown in Ecuador, much of it in dense plantations.

Leaves and flower of the balsa c. Edwina von Gal
Leaves and flower of the balsa c. Edwina von Gal

In Panama, the balsa tree generally flowers at the beginning of the dry season. The large yellow-white flowers of the balsa open during the night, revealing pools of nectar that can be more than an inch deep. A wide variety of animals feed on the nectar of the balsa flower, spreading pollen from tree to tree in the process. Bats, known to be nocturnal nectarivores, were once thought to be the principal pollinators of the balsa. But in recent years researchers have come to realize that bats may play a small role in comparison to more prolific nectar guzzlers that visit balsa trees throughout the tropics, such as capuchin monkeys, kinkajous, and olingos. For more on the flowering of the Ochroma and photos of the many pollinators invited to the feast, see this feature article from National Geographic.

The fruit of the Ochroma tree is a curved, striated pod up to 15 cm in length. The pod splits open to reveal a fluffy cotton-like material that surrounds several small seeds. Balsa seeds are primarily dispersed by wind. The pale, downy fibers catch the breeze and bear the seeds away to new locales.

balso seeds
Opened and unopened balsa fruits c. Edwina von Gal

With its large, palmately lobed leaves and its rapid growth, the balsa is an effective pioneer, often one of the first species to colonize treeless spaces. Its broad leaves provide shade for slower-growing species that eventually rise to dominance in mature sections of the forest. These late-successional species gradually overtake quick starters like the Ochromae, which tend to live only 30 or 40 years, a relatively short time in the world of trees.

Get out and see the balsa while its still in bloom!

December’s Tree of the Month: Podocarpus Guatemalensis

In many parts of the world, Christmas is not complete without the family Christmas tree, traditionally some type of pine, fir, or spruce. And so, in the spirit of the holidays, we have chosen for December’s Tree of the Month the Podocarpus guatemalensis, a conifer native to the neotropics, and one of the few species of conifer found in humid environments at low elevation.

A Podocarpus guatemalensis sapling c. INBio
A Podocarpus guatemalensis sapling c. INBio

The Podocarpus is commonly found throughout Central and South America, from as far south as Ecuador to as far north as the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz in Mexico. The tree is known to be abundant in certain locations on Isla Coiba, an island on the Pacific coast of PanamĂĄ.

Podocarpus guatemalensis thrives in a variety of different environments. It has been known to grow in savanna type vegetation at low elevations, being found alongside other species of pine such as Pinus caribeae. It is also found in tropical rainforest climes, where it is a successful canopy tree.

The trunk of the Podocarpus guatemalensis c. Rolando PĂ©rez
The trunk of the Podocarpus guatemalensis c. Rolando PĂ©rez

The Podocarpus guatemalensis can grow quite tall, reaching heights of 30 meters. Its trunk is reddish-brown in color, similar in appearance to that of the madroño (Calycophyllum candidissimum).

The leaves of the Podocarpus guatemalensis are simple and alternate in their arrangement, and lanceolate in shape (pointed at both ends). Leaves are long and thin, generally between 6 and 10 centimeters in length. Like all conifers, it is gymnosperm, producing its seeds in cones rather than in fruits. The seeds of the Podocarpus guatemalensis are small, no more than 1 centimeter in length, and elliptical in shape.

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Leaves of the Podocarpus guatemalensis c. Reinaldo Aguilar

Podocarpus guatemalensis is found in many of Panama’s nine provinces, though in 2008 the tree was listed as endangered by ANAM, the National Environmental Authority. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threats to the species as a whole are relatively minimal. Like many other trees, The Podocarpus is declining in certain regions because of increased logging and agricultural expansion.

podocarpus
Happy Holidays!

 

November’s Tree of the Month: El Árbol PanamĂĄ

The national tree of Panama, Sterculia apetala, known simply as the Panama tree, is a tall, straight-growing tree noted for its smooth and upright trunk. There exist several theories regarding the origin of the name “Panama,” but most agree that the name comes from one or more of the indigenous languages spoken in the region during the 16th century. The Panama tree was officially recognized as the national tree of the Republic of Panama in 1969.

A Panama tree near Playa Venao c. Edwina von Gal

Once considered a member of the Sterculiaceae family, the Panama tree has recently been reclassified as a part of the family Malvaceae. Found throughout Central America and in the northern half of South America, the Panama tree is highly adaptable, growing both on roadsides and on cattle ranches, on steep hills and on flat lands, in dry zones and in areas with poor drainage. The trees reach their fullest potential when located along rivers, though they grow extremely well in dry zones as well. The Panama tree is also adaptable to a variety of different soil types, though it prefers deep red or black soils with substantial clay content.

Leaves of the Panama tree c. Edwina von Gal

Because of its adaptability, the Panama tree can be used effectively for reforestation projects, erosion control and for restoration of riparian and coastal zones. The tree provides excellent shade, and thus is effective as part of a live fence or as an ornamental tree in urban spaces. The Panama tree can also be useful species for landowners wishing to create windbreaks.

In the Azuero, the Panama tree flowers during the summer months (Dec-Apr). Its flowers, small and light yellow with purple or red borders, are considered important sources of raw material for honey. Bees visit frequently to collect nectar from the flowers, later converting it into honey.

Flowers of the Panama tree c. Carlos Navarro

Both the flowers and the fruits of the tree attract a wide variety of other animals besides bees, including squirrels, birds, and monkeys. The heart-shaped fruits of the Panama tree are mostly hollow, and they split open while still attached to the branches of the tree. Seeds are best collected just after the fruits split. Most seeds remain attached to the inside halves of the opened fruits, where they are easily visible. Insects will quickly devour seeds that fall to the ground.

The Panama tree can be propagated from seed or via the use of cuttings. However, low germination rates make propagation from seed difficult.

The seeds of the Panama tree have a wide variety of uses. The seed itself is edible, and can be eaten raw or cooked. When toasted, the seed has a nutty flavor. Ground Panama tree seeds are used as flavoring in chocolate.

The seeds and hollow fruits of the Panama tree c. Edwina von Gal

The seeds of the Panama tree have high oil and starch content, and oil from the seeds is used both as an ingredient in soap and as a lubricant for fine machinery.

Various parts of the Panama tree are important in traditional medicine. An infusion made from the leaves and bark is said to be useful in treating colds. Tea made from the flowers is used for coughs and insomnia, and tea made from the leaves is used to treat rheumatism.

The lightweight wood from the Panama tree, though not especially durable, is sometimes used for making furniture, packaging, and even canoes.

October’s Tree of the Month: Ceiba Pentandra

Known to English speakers as the Kapok tree and to Spanish speakers as the ceiba, or the bongo, the Ceiba pentandra is a tall, striking deciduous tree native to the Azuero peninsula.

Belonging to the Malvaceae family, the Ceiba pentandra can claim a number of other native Azuero tree species as family members, including the barrigĂłn (Psuedobombax septenatum), the cuipo (Cavanillesia platanifolia), the cedro espino (Pachira quinata), and the balsa (Ochroma pyramidale).

The Ceiba is recognized for its considerable height and its buttressed base that provides extra support. Like its brother the cedro espino, the Ceiba oftentimes produces spikes on its trunk to discourage adventurous mammals from feeding on the bark or leaves of the tree. The leaves of the Ceiba are themselves distinctive, being alternate and palmately compound, with 5-8 leaflets radiating from a single point.

The buttress of the Ceiba helps support its sizable trunk c. National Parks of Singapore

When the Ceiba flowers, it is a major culinary event, and the menu attracts a diverse clientele. Each Ceiba can produce as much as 200 liters of nectar each season, and the flowers are visited day and night by a wide range of animals. Nocturnal diners include bats, monkeys, marsupials, butterflies, and moths, while the daytime hours are generally the domain of bees, wasps, and hummingbirds.

Though the flowers of the Ceiba are hermaphroditic, an internal security system prevents the tree from pollinating itself and producing offspring of poor genetic quality. As such, the trees rely on outside actors to transport pollen. Bats are particularly important pollinators for the Ceiba. Paternity studies of Ceiba trees on the banks of Amazon River have discovered considerable genetic mixing between trees on both sides of the wide and slow moving waterway. Scientists determined that bats were responsible for the long-distance pollination, with the flying mammals moving pollen more than 2 kilometers back and forth between riverbanks.

Flowers of the Ceiba pentandra c. Wikimedia Commons

In Panama, the Ceiba pentandra flowers between November and March, going on to form oblong green fruits on the end of its branches. Trees can produce anywhere between 500 and 4,000 fruits, which dry in the sun and burst open to reveal bunches of cotton-like fibers surrounding hundreds of individual seeds. With the first strong wind, the fluffy fibers take wing, bearing away the seeds to new locales. Thanks to its effective wind-dispersement system, the Ceiba is often one of the first trees to colonize the open areas of forests.

Downy fibers help Ceiba seeds catch a breeze c. Digital Musings

The Ceiba seeds’ high rate of germination (71% with untreated seeds) helps make the tree relatively simple to cultivate in nurseries. Protected seedlings grow quickly, with saplings growing to 40 centimeters in as little as 3 months. Mature Ceiba trees are usually some of the tallest in any forest, growing as many as 13 feet per year and reaching heights of 50 meters. One of the tallest living trees in Central America is a Ceiba found on the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica that is over 80 meters tall.

The striking crown of the Ceiba pentandra c. Reinaldo Aguilar

The Ceiba pentandra grows in areas of low elevation in West Africa and throughout Central and South America, being found as far north as Mexico and as far south as Bolivia. It is a tree of great cultural significance for many different peoples in these regions.

For the Maya, the Ceiba pentandra is the tree of life. The Maya say that the roots of the Ceiba reach down into the chambers of the underworld and that the branches extend into the heavens.

Leaves of the Ceiba pentandra c. Carlos Navarro

In Trinidad and Tobago, “The Castle of the Devil” is a particular Ceiba pentandragrowing deep within the forest where it is said that the demon of death resides. Folkore tells of a carpenter who carved seven rooms inside the tree and tricked the demon Bazil into entering. Legend has it that Bazil resides in the tree to this day.

In South America, the Huaorani Indians say that the Amazon River was born from the water-filled trunk of a giant fallen Ceiba pentandra.

In West Africa, the Ceiba is known to the Senegalese as the “tree of words.” At one particular health clinic in Senegal, the sick often approach the roots of a nearby Ceiba to discuss their problems.

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For more folkloric tales of the Ceiba pentandra and other neotropical trees, click here.

For high-resolution photos of the flower, fruits, seeds, and leaves of the Ceiba pentandra, click here.

September Tree of the Month: Cedro Espino

Welcome to the Azuero Earth Project’s Tree of the Month page! In an effort to share with you our passion for trees, we have decided to create a special page to showcase one of our many wonderful Azuero tree species. Every month we will choose a new tree species that has caught our eye and we will feature it here on our website. Be sure to check back monthly to find out which tree we have selected for our Tree of the Month!

September’s Tree of the Month: Cedro Espino (Pachira quinata)

Two mature cedro espino trees c. Carlos Navarro

The cedro espino is a tall, straight-growing tree with a modest buttress, often easy to identify because of the sharp spines commonly found covering its bark. The tree is widely recognized for its multitude of potential uses and its adaptation to different types of soil. It forms part of the Malvaceae family which also includes the Bongo (Ceiba pentandra) and the Baobab (Adansonia sp.), a tree of great cultural significance in Africa. In optimal conditions, the cedro espino can grow quickly, adding as much as 3 cm of trunk diameter per year. The tree produces an excellent and durable wood, ideal for use in window frames and doors and in other locations where sunlight might damage or warp a less stable wood.

Cedro espino plantation c. Jonathan Clay
Cedro espino is a species commonly used in reforestation projects, and it is also highly prized as a commercial timber. The cedro espino is also capable of asexual regeneration via vegetative sprouting, which makes it an ideal tree for use in live fences.
Leaves of the cedro espino c. Carlos Navarro
The leaves of the cedro espino are alternate and palmately compound, with five or seven serrated leaflets. As it is a deciduous tree, it loses its leaves completely during the dry season (January-April), when large white flowers are produced.

Reforestation and Genetic Diversity: Dr. Carlos Navarro Presents the Case of the Leucaena

Dr. Carlos Navarro

On July 27, Dr. Carlos Navarro, the Azuero Earth Project’s new Director of Agroecology and Forest Restoration, spoke to the Pedasí community about what he knows best: trees.

Dr. Navarro studied forestry in the Technological Institute of Costa Rica, completing his undergraduate thesis on floristic studies of secondary forest on the Peninsula de Nicoya. After working in CATIE he received a fellowship to study his master’s degree at the postgraduate school, preparing his dissertation on Bombacopsis quinata, a native species of Costa Rican and Panamanian dry forests. He has been involved in restoration of both forests and endangered species in several countries and has been a consulted authority for CITES, Bioversity International, CATIE, among others. He received his PhD in the University of Helsinki and his doctoral thesis explored the Genetic resources of Cedrela odorata L. and their efficient use in Mesoamerica.

Dr. Navarro’s talk focused on the best practices for reforestation projects, using the story of the Leucaena tree as a cautionary tale.

The Leucaena, a species native to Mesoamerica, was widely considered a “miracle” tree in the 1970s and 1980s. Leucaena grows quickly, produces many seeds, fixes nitrogen in the soil, and serves a good source of firewood and fodder for cattle. However, when the trees were introduced in Panama some 20 years ago, they had little success.

Dr. Navarro speaks about the different varieties of Leucaena

Dr. Navarro explained that a major reason for the trees’ lack of success in Panama and in other countries is a lack of genetic diversity. Seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, the principal subspecies chosen for propagation, were collected from a limited number of mother trees, and thus many of the new plantings shared similar genes. People soon discovered that Leucaeana was susceptible to cold and drought, and that it also tends to form dense stands not useful for timber.

Only later did researchers realize that the Leucaena family contains a much wider variety of species with rather distinct traits. Creating healthier Leucaena populations could involve spreading seeds from these other species and thus increasing the genetic diversity of pioneer Leucaena populations.

Dr. Navarro told attendees that when collecting seeds for a reforestation project, one should aim to collect seeds from a minimum of 20-30 mother trees in different locations in order to ensure healthy genetic diversity among new plantings. Trees, like humans, can experience problems with consanguinity. Seeds produced by closely related parent trees will do poorly.

I didn’t realize how much we need to work on diversity with regards to planting trees,” said Derek Mazerolle. “That makes our job a bit more difficult but also more exciting.”

Dr. Navarro’s Powerpoint Presentation (Spanish)

Bioversity Video about the Leucaena tree

University of Florida Student Conducts Tree Mapping Study in Azuero

To estimate the quantity of carbon contained in these landscapes, the team measures the diameter and height of every tree mapped in the study. Here Diogenes and Luis measure a very large Panama tree (Sterculia apetala). c. Sarah Graves

In June and July 2013, Sarah Graves from the University of Florida conducted field research to create a tree cover map of the Azuero Peninsula as part of her Master®s study entitled “Remnant tree communities in dry tropical agricultural landscapes: Use of aerial and satellite imagery for species identification, biomass estimation, and forest cover mapping”.

The goal of the study is to quantify the tree cover of degraded tropical dry and moist forests, tree species diversity and carbon stocks. This research will inform the ecological role of the dispersed tree community and can be directly used in conservation and reforestation initiatives to protect natural ecosystems. Her study is in collaboration with advisor Dr. Stephanie Bohlman in the School of Forest Resources and Conservation, with field research partially funded by the Tropical Conservation and Development program at U Florida. 

Luis measures the diameter of a tree on a hill overlooking a recently plowed rice field. Diameter and height measurements are used to estimate the quantity of carbon contained in the trees of the Azuero landscape. c. Sarah Graves

University of Panama undergraduate Lesly Oderay Candelaria, AEP staff member Jairo Batista, Diogenes Ibarra and Luis Mensilla formed the team that collaborated with Sarah in the fieldwork for this study. During the course of the fieldwork, Sarah and her team focused specifically on the region of Venao and Oria Arriba in Los Santos, visiting designated farms to locate, identify, and count tree crowns in their sample area. They also measured diameter and height to calculate biomass. Overall, they mapped over 60 tree species and over 1,500 individual tree crowns.

These field data will be combined with high-resolution aerial imagery to develop a computer model that can map tree species distribution and help understand the tree diversity throughout the area. Aerial imagery was provided by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory at Stanford University. Sarah anticipates that image analysis and results from this study will be complete by June 2014.

Accessing properties far from the main road requires a more Panamanian type of transportation. Sarah rides a horse rented from a nearby landowner to cross the Oria River and access a remote farm. c. Sarah Graves

This study provides invaluable information on Azuero tree diversity and helps to inform the Azuero Earth Project’s efforts to support reforestation of the tropical dry forest in the region. Sarah mentioned that, “from conversations with landowners, it is clear that farmers understand issues such as deforestation and climate change and are receptive to programs to increase local tree diversity”. AEP thanks Sarah Graves and Dr. Bohlman for the opportunity to collaborate on this important project.

To learn more about Sarah Graves, see the Collaborators page. To learn more about native tree species, check out AEP’s tree database.

Written by Sophie M. Fuchs

AEP Collaborates with Peace Corps at Environmental Leadership Seminar

Environmental leadership seminar participants in Reserva Forestal el Montoso, c. Ina Hysi

AEP’s Eco-Guide Editor Leo Mena gave a presentation to a group of students and property owners attending the Environmental Leadership Seminar on February 20, 2013. The Environmental Leadership seminar was planned and organized by Natalie Petrucci, a Peace Corps volunteer in El Cedro de las Minas and was developed using materials developed by Peace Corps PanamĂĄ with funding from the community of El Cedro, Autoridad National del Ambiente (ANAM), and a USAID small project assistance grant. AEP’s presentation at the seminar highlighted the extent of deforestation using the Azuero map created through the use of geographic information system (GIS) software by AEP staff member Guillermo Duran. AEP provided a map of the community and led the participants of the seminar in a dialogue to visualize and discuss the effect of deforestation in El Cedro.

Participants of the seminar commented that they were shocked to see the lack of forest in El Cedro, especially along the edges of Rio La Villa, an important river that provides water to many parts of the Azuero peninsula including the cities of La Villa and Chitré. Using this map, El Cedro residents were able to identify parts of the community that they felt most needed to be reforested. The participants of the Environmental Leadership Seminar are motivated to reforest areas around their community of El Cedro. In the seminar, group members emphasized their goals to reforest around the streams of the La Villa river watershed and on the main road so that people in El Cedro can see the value of trees.

For more information on reforestation on the Azuero Peninsula, visit AEP’s Guest Experts page on a reforestation seminar held in April 2013. For more information about reforestation in general, visit AEP’s Resource Center online or at the AEP office in Pedasí, Los Santos, Panamá. AEP now offers an online tool for planting trees native to the Azuero Peninsula. Check out the AEP Plant Database for more information.

 

Steps toward Azuero Reforestation: Azuero Community connects in PedasĂ­

Diogenes Ibarra and community members from Valleriquito, c. Guillermo Duran

Over 100 participants from communities across the Azuero Peninsula gathered in Pedasi on April 23 to discuss innovative reforestation techniques for the region. The seminar, entitled “Reforestation Techniques for the Azuero Peninsula: A Day of Tree Talks” was hosted by the Azuero Earth Project to prepare interested landowners with practical knowledge and tools for reforestation in the upcoming rainy, tree planting season.

Azuero Earth Project staff members opened the seminar with the organization’s vision to create a biological corridor connecting forest patches to build habitat for the endemic, critically endangered Azuero spider monkey. Dilsa Barrios and Analida Castillero from the National Authority on the Environment (ANAM in Spanish) clarified how a landowner can protect their rights by registering their planted trees with ANAM.

University of Panama professor and Forest Engineer Emilio Mariscal outlined economic and ecological services that trees provide, such as carbon sequestration, nitrogen fixation, and water regulation. Fernando Uribe Trujillo from the Colombian organization CIPAV presented silvopastoral techniques to raise cattle on farms that have trees. Vernon Scholey gave the final presentation, providing participants with practical reforestation advice from his 10 years of experience reforesting in Venao.

Event participants listen to presentation by Fernando Uribe, c. Guillermo Duran

Event participants got the chance to test-drive the Azuero Plant Database, a new online tool that helps landowners interested in planting trees select species suitable for their goals. Each landowner can choose the ways in which they most need trees to improve their land value – whether that is fodder for cattle, beautiful flowers, or ability to survive in tough coastal environments – and choose their favorite species to reforest with in this wet season based on their individual needs.

Cattle rancher Clara M. Ros commented: I really enjoyed that expert speakers shared their experiences and positive reforestation results, helping to integrate and motivate us to learn good practices to improve farms in a natural way without the need to spend so much money on chemicals.”

The Azuero Earth Project would like to thank seminar participants, speakers and representatives of the tree fair, Distribuidora LIBADI, Casa Margarita, Villa Esplendorosa, El Rey, Biomuseum, organizers of transportation and CEFATI/ATP for their collaboration and time to make this event such a success.

For more about the event speakers, their presentations, and other resources from the seminar, visit our Guest Experts page.

Call the Azuero Earth Project at 995-2995 for more information about how you can reforest on your land this coming rainy season!

Written by Sophie M. Fuchs