Reforesting in Azuero

The rainy season has begun in Azuero and with that, so has our reforestation season. This year 2018 between the months of July and August we have reforested 6 farms..

Fig. 1. day of reforestation of a farm in the surrounding areas of Venao with Soyuz Bilingual School, on August 17th.

 

Fig. 2. The image shows a Guanabana plant (Annona Muricata), which has been planted during the reforestation day in Nuario, 28 th august.
The reforestations

At the Azuero Earth Project, we specifically seek out hard-to-access areas for our reforestation projects, reforesting on steep slopes and marginal lands distant from roads and close to streams. These areas are often unsuitable for other uses but are very important for protecting watersheds and wildlife. Starting from as early as 7 am until 1 pm, many of the reforestations were undertaken under difficult conditions such as difficult access both regarding distance and significant obstacles, heavy rains, slippery ground, slopes and streams. These were some of the few challenges we encountered during this gratifying task for the preservation of the forest of the peninsula of Azuero.

 

A GREENER, MORE ALIVE AZUERO

Before the start of the reforestation season, a workshop was organized on March 21st in the AEP office and the ATP/CEFATI building to dialogue among key actors for successful implementation of this initiative. This workshop had the goal of clarifying questions about the 2016 forestry incentives law and Alliance for a Million Hectares, which was created to support potential reforesters with economic incentives. A panel of producers that had reforested with the Azuero Earth Project in 2017 discussed their experiences. Finally, the participants explored different techniques to establish forest conservation parcels on farms and met key reforestation actors such as farming associations, tree growers and other reforesters.

 

The results

Until this moment in 2018, we have planted approx. 1644 seedlings in the areas of Nuario, Venao and Bajo Corral. In doing so, we have benefitted 6 farmers in the area, preserved the ecosystems of unique species in Azuero like the spider monkey of Azuero (Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis), conserved the river basins, mitigated climate change, ensured productive sustainability, and diversified the production of the farms in the future with delicious fruits and other products stemming from the trees.

Fig. 3. Ruth Metzel supports a young student of the CADI Bilingual Academy in the shadow of a tree during the reforestation day in Nuario, 17 th august.

 

Our support

All of the reforestations were only possible thanks to the effort and the enthusiasm of diverse entities and institutions such as: Soyuz Bilingual School, Colegio María Manuel Tejada Roca, C.A.D.I Bilingual Academy, Peace Corps Panama ( Cuerpo de Paz ), MEDUCA Herrera, ATP, Colegio Plinio Moscoso, the municipality of Pedasí, Restaurant La Maestra, U.P.M.A. Tonosí, Manada de Capitanes Las Minas, volunteers and the communities of each of the different areas we have reforested. We thank Prince Bernhard Nature Fund, Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund and American Forests for their financial support of this project.

 

¿Are you interested in reforesting?
Fig. 4. The plant nursery coordinator, Jairo Batista, and reforester Edgar Medina transport seedlings to a reforestation site close to Venao, 25 th July.

If you want to learn more about the work of the Ecological Project Azuero you can follow us by searching for @proecoazuero in Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. For any consultation: 995-2995, or info@proecoazuero.org. If you want to support our reforestation program you can contact us, visit our office in Pedasí or you can follow this link to make a donation: http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/support-riparian-reforestation-with-azuero-farmers/

 

Fig. 5. Participants in a reforestation day in La Miel organized by the Peace Corps, 28th July.

Azuero spider monkey school initiative: the future in small steps

The Azuero Spider Monkey School Initiative is an initiative that collaborates with the primary schools closest to the remaining habitat of the Azuero Spider Monkey as well as surrounding communities. The primary goal with this initiative is to communicate the importance of Spider Monkeys in its local environment, the dangers that these animals face related to hunting, development and deforestation, and finally, the uniqueness of the dry forest ecosystem, and how reforestation can be as good for the environment as for agricultural productivity. This year the program benefits more than 430 people and works with 8 schools in the province of Los Santos, more specifically in Bayano, Bajo Corral, Los Asientos, Colán, Nuario, Vallerriquito, La Miel and Oria Arriba.

Fig. 1. The image shows the children of the School of Colán working.

The program was initially imagined in order to support the biological corridor that is of special interest for the Azuero Ecological Project. For several years, the Azuero Earth Project has been working in order to protect this corridor, as well as its unique species, spme of them being critically endangered of extinction, such as the Azuero Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis). This corridor begins in the bay of Achotines, and extends itself to the village of Oria Arriba, passing through the town of La Miel and finally reaching with the La Tronosa Forest Reserve (see Fig. 2). For this reason, these schools cover a large part of this corridor, and the vision of this program aims to promote the role of its children, together with their parents and communities, become the conservators of this important environment in the future.

Before carrying out any activities related to reforestation or habitat restoration in the area, the first step is for the members to get to know each other better through community conversations that arise during the course of the Azuero Spider Monkey Initiative. In this way, the Initiative resembles a forum to the restoration actions in the field along the corridor.

Fig. 2. The image shows the ecological corridor of interest for the Azuero Ecological Project, which extends from the coasts of Achotines to connect with the forest reserve La Tronasa.

Through this initiative, and with these communities, we contribute to sustainable development objectives such as quality education (ODS # 4), clean water and sanitation (ODS # 6), responsible production and consumption (ODS # 12), action by the climate (ODS # 13) and life of terrestrial ecosystems (ODS # 15). A focal objective, is to expose students to their environment and the surrounding natural areas, teach them the meaning of conservation under a scientific and practical scope, communicate the importance of reforestation in the classroom and in the field, and involve the local communities and parents in activities and field trips with students, in order to create a connection with the children, teachers, and ultimately, community members involved in the project.

 

 

 

At the end of this school initiative, students will be able to: Describe what deforestation is in their own words, name the causes and effects of deforestation, name trees on which the Spider Monkey depends, identify the three most common monkeys in Azuero, describe how the forests help human beings, describe what is understood by “equilibrium” with regards to nature and the environment, describe erosion, as well as the causes and effects of pollution, differentiate between climate and time, and name at least three causes of climate change in the world and locally amongst others.

If you are interested in participating in this initiative, follow our pages on Instagram, Facebook or Twitter, call us at 995-2995 / 6717-3331, write to us at info@proecoazuero.org / edward@proecoazuero.org or visit our office located in Pedasi.

Fig. 3. The image shows a group photo with the children of the School of Nuario after completing the day of learning.

An environmental parachute – ProEcoPelaos style!

Fig. 1. The image shows the parachute created by the ProEcoPela’os

Our Pro Eco Kids are embarked on an art project that will showcase their splendid talents and their profound sense of protection of their surroundings to the world. As a part of the “Parachutes for the Planet” initiative organized by the Mother Earth Project, they have created an artistic parachute that will be exhibited globally to encourage people everywhere to live sustainable and responsible lives that care for nature. The first exhibit of the parachutes will be in Washington, D.C. on July 21st and will be part of the youth-led “Thisiszerohour” Climate March.

To see upcoming exhibits enter the next link: http://motherearthproject.org/schedule/

Fig. 2. The image shows to ProEcoPelaos making the parachute

 

It was marvelous to observe these great small members of future generations pour their heart and soul into each pixel of color to benefit our future Earth, that each day sends us more cries for help. We know that these youth will be change agents to promote a culture of responsible resource use.

Do you have kids ages 5-12? Want to get involved with the Pro Eco Pelaos? Come to the Pro Eco Kids activity every Friday from 3-5 pm in our office in Pedasi. For more information on this community program and others,, contact us at (507) 995-2995 or info@proecoazuero.org.

Agro-Environmental youth groups test their water

The high-schoolers of the agricultural institutes of I.P.T.A. Tonosi (@upmatonosi) and I.P.T.A. Las Minas (@manadadecapitanes) had full days on May 15th and 16th.

Fig. 1. The image samples of the water PH test of the creek of the Tonosí Cocoa River.
THE STUDY

The students, together with teachers, personnel from the Panamanian Environmental Ministry’s Department of Soil Management and Conservation and our own Team Monkey, performed tests to measure water quality on the grounds of their Institutes and in their communities. These nascent youth groups, called the Environmental Protection Unit (in Tonosi) and the Herd of Adolescent Captains Saving Flora y Fauna (in Las Minas), tested water for pH, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, and presence of coliform bacteria, as well as general characteristics of the area such as soil and water odor and color, streambank erosion, and other characteristics.

 

Fig. 2. The image shows the young people of the I.P.T.A. of Las Minas taking data of the results obtained
RESULT

We congratulate our budding citizen scientists! The results of most of their tests show normal levels of different elements (however, they are confirming their results through a professional laboratory analysis), except for the phosphate test that revealed high levels of phosphorus in the water of the El Cacao River of Tonosí that may be due to excessive levels of fertilizers. Thanks to these activities, Las Minas and Tonosi youth are inspired to continue understanding and conserving their natural resources and contribute to a better management of their watersheds.

 

PARTICIPANT

This initiative was adopted thanks to the combined efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Panamanian Ministry of the Environment, and the Azuero Earth Project, who are committed to an Azuero peninsula led by youth deeply connected and committed to natural resource sustainability. Stay tuned for more updates about these youth groups throughout the year!

Fig. 3. The image shows the young people of the I.P.T.A. Tonosí taking the samples in the Quebrada El Cacao

 

 

Celebrating Earth Day in the Pablo Arturo Barrios Wildlife Refuge

Fig. 1. Image taking by: http://noticiasmicrojuris.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/shutterstock_96211094.jpg?w=1000

Since 2012, the Azuero Earth Project has been working with the community of Pedasí to promote a better management of the Pablo Arturo Barrios Wildlife Refuge and its natural resources, mangroves, dunes, and vegetation. Besides being a very important protected area in Pedasí, the touristic and natural value of this area is even more valuable due to its role as a buffer zone for the R.V.S. Isla Iguana. A community committee from Pedasí in addition to several organizations, including the Pedasí organisation Tortugas Pedasí, MiAmbiente, ATP, Minsacapsi Pedasí, the municipality, Cima Pedasí, Pedasí Tourism Chamber, the Azuero Earth Project and the Barrios family, planned an annual event for Earth Day to commemorate the RVS Pablo Barrios. This committee submitted an application to achieve shared management of the R.V.S. Pablo Barrios. A final answer in this regards will be taken by MiAmbiente.

Fig. 2. The image shows the planting of mangroves

To highlight the importance of the refuge and to share with this important date with the community of Pedasí, Earth Day was celebrated this Saturday, April 21st of 2018 at the Arenal beach and the refuge, with the support of the aforementioned entities and Fundación Natura.

That morning began with a walk and cleaning from the center of Pedasi to the Arenal beach, where the Azuero Earth Project received the public with open arms and a variety of exciting and interesting activities. Among these activities were a relaxing kayak tour within the confines of the wildlife refuge “Pablo Arturo Barrios”, in which families and friends had the opportunity to observe the natural beauty of the mangroves and the diversity of birds that inhabit them. Additionally, an important task was carried out for the conservation of this refuge, planting more than 100 mangroves. Another important event taken place that day was the distribution of bird guide and informational triptychs from the shelter “Pablo Arturo Barrios” from a study carried out by two students from McGill University, Montreal, Canada. A photography contest was organized with anticipation to the event to highlight the beauty of the refuge and the local nature of Pedasí. The winner of this contest where also revealed during the event. Finally, to mark the end of this eventful day, a beach cleaning was organized followed by several games of beach soccer!

Fig. 3. Celebrating in Playa El Arenal with the families and friends of the national and international community of Pedasi

The Azuero Earth Project would therefore like to say: “Thank you to all those who accompanied us to celebrate Earth Day! We are proud to know that many people celebrated this great day, which symbolizes the day of our mother Earth, or in other words, our home. However, we must remember that this must be an everyday matter and state of mind, because protecting the planet means, after all protecting our own home. We have a great responsibility over it! “

Fig. 4. Enjoying a kayaking trip between the mangroves of the Pablo Arturo Barrios Wildlife Refuge

You can find more information about our work at the Azuero Earth Project by following us on our Facebook, Twitter and Instagram pages @proecoazuero , or by browsing on our official website: http://proecoazuero.org/

For any additional questions, we can be reached by phone with the following number: 995-2995 or via e-mail at:  info@proecoazuero.org

If you would like to support our reforestation programs you can also follow us on this page: http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/support-riparian-reforestation-with-azuero-farmers/

“Thank you to the LATA Foundation for their support of this activity”

 

Mangroves in innocent hands

Fig .1 .The group ProEcoPelaos planting mangroves

This Friday, April 13, 2018, the children of Pedasí were committed to the profound task of conserving the mangroves. They are part of the Pro Eco Pelaos group of the Azuero Earth Project, and are an indispensable resource, not only for the support in the reforestation task, but also because they are our next generation because of the importance of leaving this ecological message that produces positive changes in their environmental education. “We want you to love nature as much as we love it!”

Fig. 2. Red mangrove

Mangroves are essential ecosystems. Starting by having 2 characteristics that no other plant in the world has. They can resist the combination of saline and fresh water, as well as having the ability of retaining 25% more carbon than any other plant in the world. Mangroves function as ecosystems for diverse species, both aerial and aquatic, including the “Pargo” or Red Snapper, which give mangroves an importance at the commercial level, with these fish that are so commercialized. They are of vital significance to conserve our land, since they play a function as wave barriers (protecting us even from Tsunamis) and regulate sedimentation in the water. Additionally, they clean the water by recycling the organic matter.

 

 

So, with all of this, I would dare to say that these little guys are heroes! With the simple task of taking a few hours to plant mangroves, they are helping the fauna and flora of our community, where we also inhabit, so they even do it for us. Don´t you think that they should be our role models instead of the other way around?

 

Fig. 3. The picture shows a member of the ProEcoPelaos planting mangroves in the “Refugio de vida silvestre Pablo Arturo Barrios”

We are interested in expanding our efforts to support these children and integrate them with us. It is a wonderful experience for both of us! If you are interested in having your children participating in this initiative or to provide some kind of additional support, such as transportation or other resources, do not hesitate to approach our offices or to contact us by writing at: cristobal@proecoazuero.org, info@proecoazuero.org ; or by calling us at: 995-2995, 6729-8542. We also accept donations at this link: http://proecoazuero.org/donate-aep/

 

 

The young generations of las Minas and Tonosí get ready for the future of their watersheds

Youth group “Manada De Capitanes Adolescentes Para La Conservación De La Flora Y Fauna de Las Minas”

Beige attires and brawn boots is what the energetic I.P.T.A. high school students of Tonosí and Las Minas were wearing on the third and fourth of April of 2018, when the Azuero Earth Project took the initiative of visiting them.

Youth group “Unidad para la protección del medio ambiente”

 

We travelled to these locations in order to support these young students that are pursuing agricultural studies, to create a work team that will propel the concept of sustainability in the agricultural field in their watershed. This initiative arose from a collaboration between Panama’s Ministry of Environment (Mi Ambiente), the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (F.A.O.) and the Azuero Earth Project, with the objectives of: Consolidating groups in the Parita and Tonosí schools to bring about change with regards to the attitude towards the environment, and supporting groups of students to enhance local and communal participation in actions directed to environmental care. This will lead the young leaders to prepare themselves pedagogically in topics related to their watershed’s management, and at the same time, will empower them to be capable of raising awareness within different audiences and promote the knowledge, research and conservation of the environment.

Youth group “Unidad para la conservación del medio ambiente” Playing to choose between something beneficial and malicious for a Web page

The students from both groups started their activities with a presentation of the basic information of what they should know from the perspective of an organization, including an emotive video on the importance of raising awareness regarding the protection of the watershed and forests.

Who am I? Am I an animal? Yes! Do I have ears? Yes! Am I a thief? No! Do I have slit eyes? Yes! Oh, I know! I am a cat! That was one of the games we played as we were able to share laughters with the students to alleviate the afternoon’s tensions and the tiredness. They certainly had a great time, and we greatly enjoyed this experience.

 

Youth group “Manada de Capitanes” writting their own statute

Accompanied by the Azuero Earth Project, and through the organization’s sense of collaboration and friendship, the students had the opportunity of establishing the name for their group, as well as setting their own status, objectives, goals, visions, board of directors and, as if this was not enough, even designing their own logo! We are very enthusiastic with the idea of continuing working with them, since these are young students that will provide their legacy for their region’s nature wellbeing, and in other words, for their own and others wellbeing. The Azuero Earth Project will be visiting these two institutions on a weekly basis in 2018 to assist their formation and witness their growth towards many successful years. With this program, the Azuero Earth Project aims to expand and reinforce our activities in the region of Las Minas and Tonosí, and support the formation of groups that could enable us getting closer to our mission of conserving nature and reinforcing the agricultural activity in the Peninsula of Azuero.

 

Youth group “Manada De Capitanes” creating their own social red.

At the end of the afternoon, after taking some pictures of the group, which can be found at the top of our webpage, the young students parted with a great smile on their faces and a “See you soon!”

National Award for Environmental Excellence

Azuero Earth Project wins national environmental prize 2017 in the category of NGO environmental commitment

We face great challenges in environmental and social matters, that’s why it is important to cooperate and integrate all the components of Panamanian society. The Azuero Earth Project seeks to contribute to this issue through education in rural society, which is primarily the most affected by climate changes, soil erosion, and biodiversity loss.

The Panamanian Ministry of Environment (MiAmbiente) recognizes AEP’s effort and commitment through the award for environmental excellence in the NGO category given to people and organizations that perform good practices in environmental management and that have contributed to the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. To the Azuero Earth Project, his award means a lot, indicating that our methods of environmental education are becoming known and offers new possibilities for cooperation with governmental and non-governmental organizations.

The Spider Monkey Education Initiative was awarded the excellence award in the NGO commitment category. This initiative is our first front of awareness creation in the communities closest to the remaining habitat of the Azuero spider monkey, a subspecies endemic to the Azuero region, and in critical danger of extinction according to the IUCN red list. Through the initiative, which is active in the communities closest to an ecological corridor that AEP hopes to create between the remaining tropical dry forest near Achotines laboratory and the elbow of La Tronosa Forest Reserve, the children learn about topics such as the importance of the different types of forests, the trees and fruits associated with monkey presence, and the role of the community in the conservation of biodiversity and watersheds.

The school initiative has been active since 2010 and every year the relationship with the 8 participating Los Santos communities is stronger. In these towns, the Azuero Earth Project is recognized as a close collaborator of the communities, the students, and the owners of local farms interested in reforestation. The environmental situation may become worse in the following years but surely there will be more people who will join in this national commitment to care for the environment.

For more information about the national Environmental Excellence Prize 2017, please see MiAmbiente’s webpage: http://www.miambiente.gob.pa/index.php/2013-02-20-08-59-23/noticias/noticias-de-portada/1383-miambiente-reconoce-excelencias-ambientales-2017

Vicente Álexander Vasquez Velasquez

Earth Day 2017 Celebration in Pablo A. Barrios Refuge

The Azuero Earth Project celebrated Earth Day this year in collaboration with other local organizations with a series of events in late April. The activities included:

  • A mangrove reforestation near the Pedasi port, in the Pablo A. Barrios Wildlife Refuge, with the Pro Eco Pelaos on Friday April 21st
The Pro Eco Kids hike to the mangrove reforestation site.
  • An Earth Day Celebration on April 22 on Arenal/Bajadero Beach with the local Hospital, Tourism Authority (ATP), Pedasi Municipal Government, CiMA Pedasi, OPC Panama, Tortugas Pedasi, the Barrios-Velasco family, Ministry of the Environment, Hablas Tortuga? and community members;
  • A Sunday Brunch in Las Tablas to benefit the Azuero Earth Project and its programs

The celebration on April 22 started off with a walk to the beach, followed by a beach cleanup that collected more than 49 bags full of plastic, cans and other recyclables, foam, and even some articles like a toilet seat, tires and pieces of scrap metal. Cleanup volunteers documented the quantities and types of beach trash to send this data to a national network organized by PROMAR. It is so important to remember not to leave our trash on the beach!

The winners of the annual Pablo A. Barrios photography contest were also announced on Earth Day. There were 11 entrants and 30 submissions in 3 categories: the Pablo Barrios Wildlife Refuge, Nature, and Ecotourism.  The event also included a sand sculpture building contest organized by Tortugas Pedasi y Hablas Tortuga?, traditional music, games for youth, and more.

c. Edith Díaz, Winner of the RVSPAB category of the 2017 R.V.S.P.A.B. photography contest
c. Santino Sirtoli, Winner of the Nature category of the 2017 R.V.S.P.A.B. photography contest
c. Santino Sirtoli, Winner of the Ecotourism category of the 2017 R.V.S.P.A.B. photography contest

We thank everyone who participated in these Earth Day weekend events and we hope to repeat them in future years! Meanwhile, we invite community members to get involved with our Pro Eco Kids youth group and Refuge Shared Management Committee initiatives. For more information please call (507) 995-2995 or write to gricel@proecoazuero.org

Youth Perspective: 1.5 degrees from a post-apocalyptic landscape

 1.5 degrees from a post-apocalyptic landscape

Vicente Vazquez, a former Azuero Earth Project Intern, shares his thoughts about the future of Azuero.

We tend to evaluate all that we can using numbers, quantifying what we need and this gives us pleasure; we count the amount of forests, water, and animals in order to show statistics of how our habitat is being destroyed and to create awareness of the harm that will keep continuing with our actual lifestyles. 1.5 didn’t look like a very exorbitant number and thus, it lacks importance for many; it seems paranoid to think that our lifestyle could be affected by a numerically small increase in the temperature, but nature doesn’t know numbers, it only knows thresholds where the equilibrium is maintained, and others, where the system collapses. The ecosystems found ways to mitigate the imbalance induced by human activity, but a long time ago we passed this capacity and from that moment on, the temperature began to increase gradually. We can handle the consequences through adaptation, but this would just be to postpone the inevitable.

Panama is a country with relatively low CO2 emissions. For a moment, we can feel free of blame, we can blame other nations for the effects of climate change, but we are omitting the fact that the entire economy is based on carbon. Every product, food, and service that we acquire generates CO2 emissions, and it does not stop there; they continue on to solid waste that accumulates day after day.

I live in Herrera province in Panama; we are part of the dry arc, an area that is affected every year by the El Niño phenomenon. Many senior citizens comment how in their youth, this region was a cooler place; actually the estimates for the region say that by 2050, precipitation will decrease from 23% to 1.5% and the temperature would be increasing by 2 degrees or more. Every summer we see that our streams are completely dry and our main river has lowered in height such that the concentration of dirt and waste again becomes more evident. It has been years since the rain came in quantities sufficient to alleviate heat and the evaporation of rivers. Furthermore, our forests have been replaced by farmland and extensive cattle raising. It is this scenario that I pose to my country, if the mean temperature rises by 1.5 degrees, not only will we encounter lower rainfall and higher temperatures, we will also find their causes in trying to adapt to the adverse conditions.

The effects of the scarce rainfall would start to affect our diet based on grains, like corn and rice. The harvests will be less and less profitable over time and in order to continue supplying the population’s demand that keeps dizzily increasing, we will have to employ GMOs in order to deal with the heat and the absence of water. We will have to increase the hectares of land we use to cultivate crops and raise animals, which is the other component of our diet; the meat of cows, pigs, and poultry, animals that will be affected by the droughts and the heat; the production of meat with an extensive model like the one being used now will be much more costly, but one will need to invest many scarce resources like water and hectares of pasture in order to keep obtaining meat. All of this will only make the price of food increase, and we will have to import more, and the forests will have to be destroyed, leaving us without any defense to deal with the increase of 1.5 degrees. Without trees that protect the watersheds, the water will simply become vapor.

Biodiversity will suffer a hard hit, the wild animals, unlike us, don’t have the capacity to adapt to the change of temperature in a short time, their population will be drastically reduced by the shortages of water, habitats, and food. Previously, we have already brought various species in the Azuero region to the verge of extinction, the indiscriminate hunting and the destruction of their habitats have been sufficient, the question is: How much more can the wild animals of Panama endure?

The lack of water in the rivers will reduce the hydroelectric energy production, thus the prices of energy will increasingly fluctuate; furthermore, one must consider the negative effects that the Panama Canal will suffer. Depending on the level of the reservoirs, which can supply the demand of the maritime trade and be the spearhead of a country dedicated to services, their poor functioning will bring a recession that will impede a healthy public investment and will make difficult the possibility of adapting to the temperature increase. The economy will become unstable because we will have to increase our national debt in order for us to successfully adapt and survive.

With a country without water, with food shortages, deforested forests, low biodiversity, and an unstable economy, social problems will become inevitable. Our primitive drive for survival will emerge, and without cooperation, the system will simply collapse.

Written by:

Vicente Vásquez Velásquez

Student and environmental activist.